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Chapter Two

Pleasure

Ground

(1850 - 1900)

Reform

Park

(1900 - 1930)

Recreation

Facility

(1930 - 1965)

Open Space

System

(1965 - 1990)

Sustainable Park

(1990 - present)

Goals of Parks

Functions of Parks

public

health

social

reform

assimilation

public

health

public

health

active

recreation

revitalization

psychological

relief

participation

public

health

active

recreation

passive

recreation

arts and culture

place-making

ecological health

revitalization

psychological

relief

participation

public

health

active

recreation

passive

recreation

arts and culture

resource conservation

community building

Diagram 1

. Goals and functions of parks eras of the last 150 years in the United States, (Galen Cranz)

Section 2.1

|

History of Parks,

Recreation and Culture Resources

in the City of Raleigh

existing system overview

22

The Parks, Recreation and Cultural Resources Department

plays a leading role in determining the quality of life and

character of Raleigh. The network of facilities and programs,

along with creative programming opportunities, promote

the social, cultural, mental, and physical well-being of

citizens. The history of this system is valuable background

information to consider during an update to the City’s

SystemPlan. Information included in this section has been

documented in the City of Raleigh Parks Plan, published

in 2004, and updated for this System Plan.

The principles of park design and planning have been

developed over the last several hundred years in response

to changing social conditions. The tradition of parks in

the United States is rooted in European design, however,

by the late 19th century, park design and planning began

to take its own distinct path in America. Through these

phases, (see

Diagram 1

), there were guiding principles,

influenced by changes in society, which shaped our parks.

Today, we stand at the beginning of a new era in park design

and planning. This new era asks for parks to address social,

economic and environmental concerns. “

Today’s parks and

greenways must be justified based on the perceived benefits to

the public and must contribute to alleviating problems that

constitute the prevailing political concerns of policymakers

,”

John Crompton (Texas A&M University, 2007).

2.1 Introduction